The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics says that an information, no matter how big or small, can never be destroyed. Information is always conserved, even if an object is destroyed or ripped into pieces, its information can be restored. It is only possible if we can observe and study every atom and its wave function, because every bit of information is encoded in the wave function.
Stephen Hawking (1975) clearly explained that Hawking Radiation results in the death of black holes which in turn results in complete disappearance of information. Physicists couldn’t agree with the fact that Hawking Radiation violates the basic postulate of quantum mechanics and therefore, they considered it as another paradox, the “Information Paradox”. When a body falls into a black hole it loses its connection with the remaining universe, we don’t know what happens inside the black hole. So, it is possible that the information is lost forever. There are few explanations that could provide a possible solution for the paradox. Few of these solutions are mentioned below.
1.) When black hole evaporates its radiation preserves the information, but, the “no hair theorem” provided evidence against this. It states that black holes equations are based on three parameters – mass, electric charge and angular momentum – and they have no relation with the information entering the black hole.
2.) When a black hole vaporises, it is not completely lost, a small Planck sized residue is left, but no possible explanation of that residue has come forward yet.
3.) Black holes leak information: The theory suggest that black holes may leak but by doing this it would be putting aside the classical and semi-classical gravity.
4.) Information is stored in a baby universe: A baby universe is formed where every information that goes in a black hole is stored. We don’t know if it disobeys the laws of physics or not, so it can’t be considered as a possible explanation.
5.) Holographic Principle: Scientists believe that it is the most justifiable explanation for the information paradox. It states that, when a body hits the event horizon the information of the body in somehow encoded on the surface of the event horizon and what appears inside is just a hologram. Scientists use this same principle to define our universe, that what we see is a hologram, we are a hologram and there is a boundary where all the information about us are encoded. We can say that the Holographic Principle resolves the information paradox, but we can’t be certain.
We don’t know what really goes inside that empty void, but if someday we do then that day will mark the dawn of a new era. Until then, black holes will remain as the most petrifying celestial body with the power to devour worlds.